Idiopathic sudden deafness, also known as idiopathic sudden sensorineural deafness, refers to sudden sensorineural deafness of unknown causes, referred to as sudden deafness. Usually in a few minutes or hours, a few can be in 3 days, hearing loss, can be accompanied by tinnitus and vertigo. Most of them are unilateral, and binaural deafness is rare. The treatment effect is directly related to the time of treatment, and should be treated as early as possible.


The etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear.

There are many reasons for sudden hearing loss, but most scholars think that the main reasons are blood circulation disorder of inner ear, virus infection, comprehensive factors of virus and blood vessels, rupture of labyrinth window membrane, dysfunction of vascular stria, trauma, poisoning, tumor and so on.

Sudden deafness, which can not be found, is called idiopathic sudden deafness. The possible causes are as follows:

1 virus infection

It is one of the main etiology theories. According to the clinical observation, many patients had the symptoms of predisposition before the onset of the disease. Many kinds of infectious viruses, such as influenza virus B, mumps virus and cytomegalovirus, have been detected through the serum examination of patients.

2. Blood supply disorder of inner ear

It is an important factor of the disease. The stria vascularis of the inner ear and the arteries and branches of the inner ear are terminal vessels. Therefore, the dysfunction of blood supply to the inner ear is easy to damage the hearing function. The causes of sudden deafness are vasospasm of inner ear, blood flow disorder, formation of microthrombus, hemodynamic changes and increase of blood viscosity.

3 autoimmune dysfunction

The pathological mechanism of sudden deafness can be manifested as abnormal humoral and cellular immunity. The inner ear immune response belongs to the protective mechanism of the body, but it can cause membrane labyrinth damage if it is too strong.

Clinical manifestations

1 hearing loss

Suddenly, most of them happen in minutes or hours, and a few drop to the lowest level in three days. Most of them are moderate or severe sensorineural deafness, and a few of them are extremely or even completely deaf. The disease usually occurs in the early morning or shortly after getting up, often without warning, but may have causes, such as overwork, cold, emotional tension or drinking.


Before and after deafness, tinnitus usually occurs, accounting for 70%, mostly in bass or treble. Some patients may overemphasize tinnitus and neglect hearing loss.

3 vertigo

Some patients will be accompanied by vertigo of different degrees. A few patients will be misdiagnosed as Meniere’s disease, but the disease will be relieved in a few days without recurrent vertigo.

4 ears blocked

Usually, ear obstruction occurs before deafness. Some patients will feel numbness or heaviness around the ear.


Due to the particularity of the disease, we should try our best to take medicine as soon as possible and intervene. According to the etiology of drugs, such as drugs to improve the blood supply of inner ear, neurotrophic drugs, antiviral drugs and hyperbaric oxygen therapy to promote metabolism.

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