Congenital deafness refers to the deafness caused by abnormal or genetic factors in the process of pregnancy and delivery. Most of them are sensorineural deafness.
The first three months of pregnancy is the critical period of fetal inner ear development. If the mother is infected with cold, rubella and other viruses or syphilis during this period, it may hinder the normal development of fetal inner ear and cause congenital hearing loss.
In addition, various toxic diseases during pregnancy, such as diabetes, nephritis, thyroid dysfunction, abdominal X-ray irradiation, long-term deep anesthesia, use of various toxic drugs, threatened abortion, etc., may also affect the development of fetal inner ear.
During the delivery process of the mother, including the diseases in the delivery period and several days after delivery, such as premature delivery, dystocia, umbilical cord around the neck, trauma in the delivery, respiratory tract blockage causing neonatal anoxia and asphyxia, can cause neonatal hearing loss.
In addition, severe jaundice, hemolysis and Rh factor difference between mother and child can also cause hearing loss.
When a close relative marries, the incidence of hereditary hearing loss is relatively increased due to the increase of the chance that the couple have the same deafness gene.
Hereditary hearing loss can occur at birth or gradually become apparent later.
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