What is deafness
It refers to the hearing loss caused by various reasons.
2. Common types of deafness
1. Secretory otitis media: due to lack of fluid concentration, fever and earache, the children’s academic performance has declined and their personality has changed before they see a doctor. Losing the opportunity of surgery and treatment is one of the common causes of deafness in children.
2. Congenital deafness: refers to the loss of hearing function after birth and being in a silent world Most of them are married by close relatives of their parents and pass the deafness gene to their offspring. The first three months of pregnancy is the critical period for the development of hair cells of fetal auditory organs. During this period, if the mother suffers from viral infectious diseases such as cold, rubella, sore rash, etc., and the hair cell development is impaired, the fetus will lose its hearing function.
3. Deafness caused by infectious diseases: if epidemic meningitis and mumps are not treated systematically after the onset of the disease, they will be left slowly for sensorineural deafness.
4. Ototoxic deafness (inner ear drug poisoning): refers to deafness caused by abuse of certain drugs or long-term exposure to certain chemicals.
Common ototoxic drugs:
(1) aminoglycoside antibiotics: gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, etc.
(2) salicylic acid painkillers: meishuning, nimesulide tablets, etc.
(3) antimalarial drugs: kuituo, chloroquine, etc.
(4) diuretic: furosemide, diuretic acid, etc.
(5) anticancer drugs: vincristine, 2-nitroimidazole, cisplatin, etc Common ototoxic chemicals: aluminum, phosphorus, arsenic, benzene, Co, SO2, CCI4, etc
5. Sudden deafness: severe hearing loss occurs within 1-2 days without obvious inducement.
6. Autoimmune deafness: it occurs at the same time or in succession on both sides of teenagers, and it is asymmetric and progressive sensorineural deafness.
III. principles of deafness treatment
(1) recover or partially recover the lost hearing;
(2) try to preserve and utilize the residual hearing.
IV. treatment of deafness
1. Drug treatment: within half a year after the occurrence of deafness, drug treatment such as improving inner ear microcirculation and hair cell nutrition should be taken. If it is not effective, it should be given up. Drugs should not be blindly superstitious. Because the inner ear hair cells of sensorineural deafness are necrotic and exfoliated, they cannot be regenerated. Drug use is not omnipotent, and there are time limitations. For example, drug treatment can still be carried out 1-3 weeks after sudden deafness, and if it is more than 3 weeks, it is not effective.
2. Hearing aids: up to now, the most practical and effective treatment and rehabilitation means for people with sensorineural deafness or conductive deafness who have lost medicine and operation opportunities.
3. Cochlear surgery: it is suitable for the deaf patients who have no effect in wearing hearing aids. Because one operation needs about 200000 yuan, it is very expensive and its clinical application is limited.
4. Hearing and speech training
(1) hearing training: after wearing hearing aids, deaf patients will gradually develop their listening habits, improve their ability of hearing perception, hearing attention, hearing positioning, recognition, memory, etc.
(2) speech training: train deaf children to speak and read lips, then understand and accumulate vocabulary, master grammar rules, and express thoughts and feelings flexibly and accurately Through the joint efforts of teachers and parents in schools for the deaf and mute, we can make the deaf children “not mute”
V. some problems in prevention and treatment of deafness
1. As long as there is residual hearing, hearing aids should be selected as early as possible to avoid total deafness.
2. Hearing aids are not ordinary commodities. Hearing aids purchased in stores without professional selection not only have no effect, but also can aggravate hearing damage due to noise output. It is necessary to select the most appropriate hearing aids in the professional hearing aid fitting institutions by the examiner through hearing inspection and according to the hearing curve by using computer software. Just like wearing glasses to protect vision, hearing aids can only be equipped properly Preserve residual hearing.
3. Otologists, hearing aid examiners, teachers and parents of schools for the deaf work together to improve the social level and practical effect of prevention and treatment of deafness, so as to achieve the goal of “deaf but not dumb” for deaf children, return to the sound world, and restore language communication and social ability
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