Hearing ability is the ability of perception and recognition of sound on the basis of hearing. It is a comprehensive reflection of all or part of the various attributes of vocal objects, including the ability of perception, search, analysis, synthesis, discrimination, storage and other aspects of sound. Although hearing ability is based on hearing, it is related to people’s knowledge and experience, as well as their intelligence and psychology. Older children have some life experience, but they know nothing about voice. They can judge the speaker’s intention by mouth type or action, but they can’t understand speech by listening. At the same time, older children have a certain understanding of things in life before rehabilitation surgery. They imitate simple language by looking at the mouth pattern. When they hear the voice after surgery, they instinctively ignore the existence of the voice, because they have developed the habit of looking at the mouth pattern. Therefore, the hearing rehabilitation training of the old deaf children is a hard work in the rehabilitation teaching. Talk about how older children should recover.
Whether it is 0-6-year-old preschool children or school-age children over 6 years old, the principle of hearing training is to follow the principle of gradual progress from easy to difficult. The rehabilitation of older children can be divided into two categories:
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I. hearing training
The time from birth to the completion of the operation is at least 6 years, during which they have never felt the voice, so when they hear the voice, this is a new stimulus, which needs to be continuously strengthened to help them remember and be good at using. The rehabilitation of older deaf children also needs to go through four stages, namely:
1. Sound detection
Recognize sound by perceiving the existence of various sounds. At this stage, you can listen to some music or natural environment sound, and also can sense various onomatopoeia words. These simple exercises can help the children who are training for the first time to master and be familiar with the sound. The progress of older children at this stage is the most obvious, and their mastery of methods is fast, so one or two classes can let children understand the whole process of observation.
2. Recognition of sound
This stage mainly allows children to experience the similarities and differences of sound. Through the practice of musical instruments and onomatopoeia, children can feel the changes of sound. Older children have a better understanding ability. They can prepare two same pictures and two different pictures to let them listen to the two sounds. If the two sounds are the same, they can choose the same picture. If the sounds are different, they can choose different pictures.
I use the game: hear the voice to draw the head. You can take out a doll’s head picture from the box when you hear the sound. You can draw a pair of big eyes on the head picture when you hear the big sound, and draw a small mouth when you hear the small sound. Through such practice, you can not only make the deaf children perceive the sound, but also learn to distinguish the size of the sound.
3. Recognition of sound
At this stage, the requirements for children’s listening ability are higher. They need to understand the differences and at the same time know the meaning of each voice. In this stage, there are three types of listening: closed words, semi open words and open words. The main purpose of this study is to investigate children’s recognition and listening of onomatopoeia, different syllable numbers, the same syllable numbers, similar words and sentence keywords. There are many kinds of sounds. If we want our children to recognize and remember sounds, we need to practice many times, deepen the imprint of words in their brain, and let them connect the words they used to speak with this sound.
Because children are older, have a strong understanding ability, and have a stronger demand for learning than preschool children, so children’s toys are of little significance to their teaching. At this stage, I use dictation as the game mode, and tell them what they want to dictate in advance, so that they can carry out recognition exercises in closed listening options.
4. Understanding of voice
This stage requires children to understand what we say and give appropriate responses. It can be a familiar topic or a free conversation.
In short, each child’s situation is different, the training methods are different, and the rehabilitation results will be different. In addition to the regular hearing practice, the rehabilitation of the old deaf children also needs the training of pronunciation. Because before hearing the voice, they have language ability, but because they can’t hear their own voice, they can’t give correct feedback to their own voice, so most of the elderly deaf children’s rehabilitation needs speech correction.
II. Pronunciation training
1. Relaxation training
By relaxing the muscle tension of the limbs, the throat muscle group can be relaxed correspondingly, and children can be guided to do physical relaxation exercise. Stand or lie on your back, put your hands on your belly, and practice regular abdominal breathing. This training can help them to have a correct breathing method and lay a foundation for correct pronunciation.
Five minutes before each class, the children will be asked to listen to the music and do meditation. They will follow the rhythm of the music and do abdominal breathing exercises.
2. Breathing training
Correct breathing is closely related to the rhythm of children’s speech and the articulation of speech. Natural breathing is different from speech breathing. To make deaf children speak clearly, first of all, they should learn to use breathing and control air flow. Deep breathing is to let children master the correct breathing method and state, and exercise the strength of breathing muscles and inspiratory muscles.
The methods adopted in this stage are: to produce 6 unit long sounds, such as: a – U – etc.; to open resonance by “hehahao” on the basis of abdominal breathing.
3. Practice of vocal organs
According to the different situation of deaf children, carry on the training of pronunciation organ. If a child’s lip muscle strength is low, some training should be done to improve the lip ability, such as: lip resistance exercise, lip gravity massage. If a child’s throat pronunciation is tense, he should do some throat relaxation training, such as: yawn sigh method / h /, make h sound before each speech, open his voice, relax his throat, and say the target words.
4. Pinyin practice
The practice of single vowel and the combination of sound and rhyme. Our language is composed of vowels, so special treatment for children’s weak points will achieve twice the result with half the effort.
Although before the age of 6 is the best time for rehabilitation, it does not mean that the old deaf children after the age of 6 do not have the opportunity of hearing reconstruction. The old deaf children have his advantages. Although the rehabilitation of the old deaf children is more difficult, as long as we learn from each other, we can certainly lead them into the ranks of the healthy children.
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Link：How can deaf children recover their hearing
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